Government census taking began in the early nineteenth century in Ireland. The first, and partial, census was carried out in 1813. This was followed in 1821 with the first complete countrywide census on 28 May. A new census was taken every 10 years after this date, up to 1911. The census for 1921 was never carried out because of the disarray caused by the War of Independence. Censuses for what is now the Republic of Ireland began in 1926.
The aim of the census was to understand the size and make-up of the Irish population to better inform government policy. As a consequence the range of questions asked, and information gathered, in each of the census returns 1821-1911 varied. In general they got progressively more detailed as new issues were felt important enough to analyse statistically.
The majority of Irish census returns from the nineteenth century were destroyed. The 1861-91 census returns were officially destroyed in their entirety, partly because of paper shortages at the outbreak of the World War in 1914. Earlier returns (1813-51) were mostly destroyed with the destruction of the Public Record Office at the outset of the Civil War in 1922.
But the statistical results from all these census returns were compiled into tables and printed for circulation among civil servants and politicians. From 1851 to 1911 these statistical tables and accompanying analysis were printed in a volume for each county for each year. It is these county reports that are reproduced here on CD-ROM or digital download.
Initially these tables recorded the numbers, ages and gender of the population by townland, civil parish and barony. These figures are important as they describe the changing circumstances of each district in Ireland and provide contextual information for family and social history. The reports usually list the change in population over the previous 10 years, so at a glance you can see the impact of the Famine in the 1851 reports. From 1871 the information gathered increased dramatically, and tables of statistics concerning "conjugal condition" (i.e. marital status), occupation, location of birth, disability, religious profession, education, emigration and foreigners appear.
The reports are far more than dry statistical tables. With this information the experience and composition of a townland can be tracked over the decades. Families and individuals were part of a wider townland community, and knowing that history can help researchers assess the social environment of a family. This provides essential background and context for any family history.
This collection of official census reports for County Tipperary includes the following years: 1851, 1861, 1871, 1881, 1891 and 1911. Together these reports come to 905 pages.
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Originally published in Waterford in 1907 by E. Downey & Co., and republished here on fully searchable CD-Rom, is the first edition of My Clonmel Scrap Book. Compiled and edited by James White, My Clonmel Scrap Book contains some 382 printed pages and more than a dozen photographs of Clonmel (County Tipperary) dating from the period of the book's compilation.
The publisher of My Clonmel Scrap, Edmund Downey (1856-1937) was a native of Waterford and an author in his own right with titles such as Through Green Glasses (1887), Green as Grass (1892), Merchant of Killogue (1894), and Clashmore (1903) to his credit. Downey spent his early career in London where he was active in the Southwark Irish Literary Club and conducted a publishing business jointly with Ward. From 1895 onwards he published independently and is one of the leading publishers associated with the Irish literary revival of the Irish literary revival; at an early stage of the revival Downey was associated with Charles Gavan Duffy in printing the poems of F. H Donnell and after his return to Waterford started to collect and publish work from a nationalist grouping, which included D. P. Moran, who is remembered for his seminal work on Irish revivalism, The Philosophy of Irish Ireland. Edmund Downey's publications from this period include works by O'Donovan Rossa, Standish James O'Grady, Lady Wilde, T. P. O'Connor, Joseph Le Fanu, Somerville & Ross, Charles Lever and many many more and it was wholly appropriate the Downey was responsible for the publication of My Clonmel Scrap Book.
Containing 79 short stories, poems, anecdotes and excerpts from previously published material, all of the material contained in My Clonmel Scrap Book centres in around the town of Clonmel and some, but not all is of a highly patriotic nature that were in-line with Downey's heavy involvement with the Irish Literary Revival Movement and Moran's concepts of Irish-Ireland. The miscellany includes works by C. J. Boland, Richard Shiel, A. M. Sullivan, E. P. Hogan, William Leahy and Charles Kickham and well as a number of anonymous writers such as 'F.H.W', 'J.J.M' and a 'Student of Gray's Inn'.
Amongst the stand-out titles in collection of articles in My Clonmel Scrap Book are excerpts on Clonmel taken from Inglis's Journey Through Ireland, originally published in 1834; 'Meagher of the Sword' and Thomas Francis Meagher's speech from the dock; The Trial of Father Sheehy as well as many reminisces and observations on local Clonmel events and places such as the Potato Market, the Great Clonmel Flood, The Men of 'Ninety-Eight, Waterford Elections, the Clonmel Assizes of 1827 to name but a handful out of this wonderful collection.
For anyone interested in in the local history of Clonmel and the surrounding area, the Irish Literary Revival Movement and the part played in this by the publisher Edmund Downey of Waterford, this is an opportunity to purchase a republication of the first edition of My Clonmel Scrap Book.
Originally published by William Bassett in Limerick in 1881 is the Limerick City and County Directory, which is republished here on fully-searchable CD-Rom. Containing more than four-hundred printed pages, Bassett's Directory has the complete title of Limerick City and County, and the Principal Towns in the Counties Clare, Tipperary, and Kerry, Directory, 1880-1.
Apart from the Dublin City and County Directories published by Alexander Thom & Co., and with the exception of the occasional county directories published by the likes of Pigott and Slater, Irish county directories, even trades directories such as that under review, are not commonplace in the nineteenth century. First published in 1875, Bassett's Limerick Directory for 1880-1 was the second and improved edition of the publication, containing as it does guides to the principal towns in Limerick, Clare, Tipperary and Kerry, which Bassett hoped would result in the publication of complete guide to the province of Munster.
The Limerick City and County Directory begins with a digest of the public bodies and institutions railways, religious, benevolent, literary and mercantile in the Borough of the City of Limerick. This includes list of all public officials such as magistrates, members of the corporation of the City and all other public officials who recorded ward-by-ward, which constitutes the first forty pages of the Directory. This is immediately followed by an alphabetical list of the principal merchants, traders and gentlemen in the City of Limerick and its surrounding areas and this together with the classified trades and professions directory, alphabetically arranged makes up just over a third of the Directory as a whole. The County Section of the Directory for Limerick records the principal gentlemen, clergy and traders for thirteen of Limerick's principal towns, namely Abbeyfeale, Adare, Askeaton, Bruff, Castleconnell, Croom, Elton/Hospital, Foynes, Glinn, Kilfinane, Kilmallock, Newcastle & Neighbourhood, Rathkeale and Neighbourhood and Patrick's Well & Neighbourhood.
The portion of the Directory treating on Clare, Tipperary and Kerry are in no way as complete as that for Limerick. The Clare portion of the Directory treats on the principal residents and traders of only five of the county's major towns, Tipperary faring a little better with eight and County Kerry also with eight. In the main, each town included in the directory records the the gentry and clergy in the immediate vicinity of the town as well as the principal traders in the town and its surrounds. In the case of the larger towns notices in the Directory, for example Tralee and Clonmel, borough officials such as magistrates, corporation members, councillors and union officials are also included. The Limerick City and County Directory is concluded with more than ninety pages of advertisements taken from all over Ireland, which present a fascinating account of some of the leading producers and suppliers in the country as a whole in 1880.
As one of the few trades directories for Limerick, Clare, Tipperary and Kerry published prior to the twentieth-century, Bassett's Limerick City and County Directory for 1880-1, republished here on fully-searchable CD-Rom, is not to be missed.
Edited and published B. J. Long and D.E. O'Connor and printed by the Athlone Printing Works Co., the 1910 edition of Tipperary's Annual contains 185 printed pages packed with stories, photographs, anecdotes, local history and local advertisements. The Annual was only published from 1909 to 1913 and again from 1954 to 1955 and single editions of the early editions were changing hands for approximately 40 in the mid-1990s and as early as the 1950s these were extremely rare and hard to come by.
As one would expect from a county magazine of this type, Tipperary's Annual is replete with local items of interest, which the editor's felt were right for 'A Magazine for the Homes of Tipperary' in order 'To Elevate, To Instruct, To Amuse'. The Annual includes thirty-six articles of varying length, which are interspersed with items of poetry and accompanied by a total of thirty-three illustrations all of which will be of particular interest to aficionados of the county.
The first article in the Annual, written by I. M. McCraith, is 'In Tubrid Churchyard' and recounts the story of its most famous internee for who the Churchyard was built, the scholar-priest and patriot historian, Seathrún Céitinn or Geoffrey Keating. Born near Burgess, Ballylooby, just outside Cahir, Co. Tipperary in about 1569, Keating was educated under the protection of the Archbishop of Bordeaux and later at Salamanca before returning to Ireland were he was outlawed with a price on his head under. Here he fled to the Galtee Mountains at Aherlow where he wrote his lasting legacy to Irish history, Foras Feasa ar Éirinn literary the 'Foundation of Knowledge on Ireland' by more commonly translated as the 'History of Ireland'. Written in early modern Irish, this recounts Ireland's history from the creation of the world until the arrival of the Normans in the 12th century. Banned until the anti-Catholic laws known as the 'Graces', the History of Ireland was one of the most circulated books in manuscript in Ireland and was translated into English in 1723.
Other articles include Death of Brennan the Robber; Tipperary 120 Years Ago; In Clonmel Goal; Execution of the McCormack Brothers; How Joe Meany Rode with the Tipperarys; Hurling for a Wife; Tipperary's Athletic Sons and Clonmel 80 Years Ago. Of the illustrations, there are photographs of the McCormack's funeral as it passed through Templemore, Borrisoleigh and Thurles; The first Tipperary All-Ireland Hurling Champions of 1887; the Thurles Hurlers who embarked on a tour of Belgium in 1910 and Matt McGrath. Also of interest will be the many local advertisements carried at the beginning and end of the Annual.
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Originally published in Dublin in 1878 by Hodges, Foster and Figgis and republished here, The Diocese of Killaloe from the Reformation to the Close of the Eighteenth Century, was written by Rev. Cannon Philip Dwyer and this edition was first owned by Rev. W McIlwaine, D. D., a contributor on the history and architecture of the Cathedral of St. Flannans, Killaloe.
At the time of publication the Diocese of Killaloe encompassed all of county Clare, portions of county Galway, Tipperary and Limerick as well as the ancient Diocese of Roscrea, to which was added the Diocese of Kilfenora and is the second largest Diocese in Ireland. The author's stated aim of the publication was to trace the 'internal and external state of the Church within the Diocese of Killaloe' and in some 580 printed pages this he managed to do with considerable success, producing one of the first modern diocesan histories, which was used as a template for may later such histories.
The Rev. Canon Philip Dwyer was born in Dublin (1822-1905) the son of a barrister and after studying at Trinity College, Dublin, was ordained as a priest with his first appointment in 1846 to the parish of Dunkerrin, Co. Clare. For the next thirty-eight years Dwyer served as a priest and later as a Prebend and vicar in the county, during which time he initiated the building of the new St. Columba's Church and gained the reputation as the 'historian of Clare'. Dwyer published six books on county Clare and the Diocese of Killaloe of which the title under review is the best-known, which was published shortly before he left Ireland for Canada.
Without any precursors to such a publication Dwyer set out The Diocese of Killaloe from the Reformation to the Close of the Eighteenth Century - which is a bit of a misnomer as it ends in 1702 - by regnal year, beginning with the Reformation and the reign of Henry VIII (1509-47), one of the shortest chapters in the publication, consisting of a mere sixteen pages. Drawing heavily on State Papers, Patent Roles, Inquisitions, Fiants and other manuscript material available to him, Dwyer was also the first historian to make particular use the Depositions made during the reign of Charles I. The chapters covering the reigns of James I (1603-25) and Charles I (1625-48) are amongst the most informative. Included in the chapter covering the reign of James I is the 'State of the Diocese of Killaloe' an answer by the incumbent of the Diocese in 1622 presented in 14 articles. This includes a list of all of the incumbents of the diocese, their values and patrons as well as a list of all of the deteynors of church lands in the diocese, the names, value and quantity of land held. The Depositions utilised in the chapter 6, the Reign of King Charles I. These record first had the turmoil wreaked throughout the Diocese resulting from the 1641 Rebellion.
The Diocese of Killaloe includes many useful appendices, which include succession lists for the Diocese, topographies for the parishes in Killaloe as well as a list of the castles of county Clare and their owners in 1584. The Diocese of Killaloe from the Reformation to the Close of the Eighteenth Century republished here must appeal to anyone interested in the local history and religious history of the diocese and also to those interested in the local history of Clare, Limerick and Tipperary.
This is one of earliest full commercial directories of Ireland, and includes over 220 urban centres throughout the island. Organised by Province, and then town, it lists all the principal office holders, gentry, professionals, tradesmen, hotels, schools, public institutions, churches, and even pubs for each town in Ireland. There is a description of each Province and town as well. This was Pigot's much-expanded second edition (the previous version dated 1820) and is now extremely rare.
This title includes the Introductory sections, and the Munster section only.
Lewis gives details about every parish, town and village in Ireland, including numbers of inhabitants, the economy, history, topography, religion and parish structures, administration and courts, schools, and much more. He also gives the names of the principal inhabitants (generally landlords, merchants and professionals).
This Dictionary is in four parts:
· Preface & Subscribers
· Volume 1: A-G
· Volume 2: H-Z
· Volume 3: Maps
The Maps are in full colour, making this source one of the most important for research on Ireland.
This is an incredibly rare book, and one of the earliest local directories published in Ireland. It contains a full list of city and borough officials for the places covered, as well as covering education, religion, public and private institutions, trades directory, alphabetical directory, as well as a lot of other useful information, such as a calendar of fairs, tides, postal services, etc.
The places covered are:
Waterford, Kilkenny, Clonmel, Carrick-on-Suir, New Ross, Carlow and Tramore (which was added after the title page had been printed).
This book really contains two publications. The first is the general directory for Cork city. This important publications includes an alphabetical directory, street directory and trades and professions directory for the city, as well as full lists of administrative offices, and public and private institutions. This is followed by Wynne's Directory of the province of Munster, which covers every county. Each county section starts with a list of administrative and judicial officers, after which there is a full trade directory for each town.
This extremely rare book also includes some illustrations of Cork as well as a vast number of illustrated advertisements.
This superb book includes a full commercial directory for the entire country. Organised by Province, and then town, it lists all the principal office holders, gentry, professionals, trades, hotels, schools, public institutions, churches, and even pubs for each town in Ireland. Slater took over Pigot's important publication of commercial directories of Ireland, and this was the first instalment. It has almost twice as much detail as its predecessor (published in 1824), and is now an extremely rare item.
This title includes the Introductory sections, and the Munster, Cork & Limerick sections only.
For those familiar with the study of Irish history and in particular Irish genealogy, directories such as Slater's are a vital research tool. Each town and village contained in the Directory is introduced by its geographical location in relation to its nearest railway station together with population statistics derived from the 1861 Census of Ireland as well as a brief geographical and topographical description. The Directory provides the names and addresses of the principal private residents, together with those engaged in commercial and agricultural activity as well as the presence and location of religious, commercial and public institutions.
This publication reproduces just the Province of Munster and cities of Cork and Limerick sections of Slater's 1870 Royal National Directory of Ireland. This directory is one of only nine national directories for Ireland published prior to 1900 and an essential research tool for the study of Irish genealogy and history.
This superb book includes a full commercial directory for the entire country. Organised by Province, and then town, it lists all the principal office holders, gentry, professionals, trades, hotels, schools, public institutions, churches, and even pubs for each town in Ireland.
This is the third edition of Slaters, for the year 1881, and contains 1,580 pages of information including a large-scale map of Ireland.
Francis Guy postal directory of the province of Munster is an exceptionally important book. It is one of the few detailed directories for Munster from this period, and records over 140,000 names in 1,183 pages. There is a section for each county, beginning with a history and description of the county, followed by administrative office holders, judiciary, religions and clerics, fairs, markets, banks, education, legal, medical, institutions, newspapers, poor law unions, county and city establishments. This is followed by a full postal directory for every village and town in the county. This directory is structured by profession, and is similar to a trades directory, except that it also includes a full directory of farmers in the locality. The list for each place also includes all administrative officials and institutions (schools, churches, etc.) for that area. Each name also gives an address and profession. This is followed by a full alphabetical directory for the county that lists name, profession and address for each person. The county sections that include a city area (i.e. Cork, Limerick and Waterford) have parallel postal directories and alphabetical directories for those cities as well as the county. Each county section finishes with some statistics, and also includes a number of unique illustrations.
The following list gives the number of pages and names recorded for each county:
Clare: 102 pages, 12,000 names
Cork city and county: 508 pages, 60,000 names
Kerry: 122 pages, 12,000 names
Limerick city and county: 174 pages, 22,000 names
Tipperary: 164 pages, 20,000 names
Waterford city and county: 113 pages, 14,000 names
Published by HMSO from evidence given to both house of Parliament in February 1893 by Assistant Commissioner W. O. O'Brien, the full title of this publication gives some idea as to its nature and scope:
'Royal Commission on Labour: The Agricultural Labourer. Vol. IV. Ireland, Part II, Reports by Mr. W. P. O'Brien C.B., (Assistant Commissioner) upon certain selected districts in counties Carlow, Cork, Clare, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, King's, Limerick, Queen's, Tipperary, Waterford, Wexford and Wicklow'.
In fact, the information presented in the 138 Report was taken from the Commissions Surveys of eleven Poor Law Unions, namely Kenmare, Kanturk, Nass, Ennistymon, Cashel, Wexford, Lismore, Thomastown, Kilmallock, Mountmellick and Carlow and is one of a number of similar reports into the state of agricultural labourers that taken together are the most comprehensive survey of the condition of agricultural labourers undertaken; the Commission undertook inquiries into 41 aspects of the lives of Irish labourers. This evidence was derived from a plethora of sources, which give both this and the Commissions conclusions great validity. Amongst the sources from which evidence was garnered were secretaries of local labour leagues, land agents, independent witnesses, Poor Law Union Guardians, parish priests as well as personal interviews by the Commissioner and his agents. These interviews included visiting labourers' cottages in each of the subdistricts of the unions surveyed and much of the firsthand evidence gathered revealed the depressing conditions experienced by the rural and urban labourer alike.
The scope of the Commission's inquiry was as far-reaching as were its final conclusions. The specific areas of inquiry were as follows: supply of labourer; immigration; conditions of engagement; terms of engagement; hours of labour and meal times; Sunday work; wages and earnings; piece work; mode of payment; prerequisites and allowances; wages earned and other employments; estimated annual earnings; diet of labourers and their families; cottage accommodation; suggested amendments to Labourer's Acts as well as a plethora of evidence as to way and means of improving labourers wages, housing and conditions; garden allotments, cultivation plots and allotments for town labourers; live stock, bee industry, cow runs and pastures; benefit societies, trade unions, relations between employer and employee; general condition of town and agricultural labourers; age and size of families and the effect of early marriages and large families.
In short, the Commission probed into every conceivable aspect of labourer's lives and probably extended its scope beyond its original remit by inquiring into the conditions and circumstances of town labourers, miners and women labourers both town and country. Taken as a whole the 1893 Royal Commission on Labour provides provides some of the best social, economic and historical data available for the labouring classes of Ireland towards the end of the 19th century and will be a useful time for academics and those simply interested in the socio-economic conditions experienced by much of the population of Ireland in the 1890s.
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Published by HMSO from evidence given to both house of Parliament in February 1893 by Assistant Commissioner Mr. C. Rogers, the full title of this publication gives some idea as to its nature and scope:
'Royal Commission on Labour: The Agricultural Labourer. Vol. IV. Ireland, Part III, Reports by Mr. C. Rogers, (Assistant Commissioner) upon certain selected districts in counties Cavan, Dublin, Galway & Tipperary'.
In fact, the information presented in the 80 page Report was taken from the Commission's Surveys of four Poor Law Unions, namely Loughrea, Roscrea, Balrothery and Bailieborough and is one of a number of similar reports into the state of agricultural labourers that taken with the reports that covered the remainder of the county constitutes one of the most detailed investigations into the conditions of agricultural labourer in Ireland ever undertaken. The evidence presented in the Reports derived from a plethora of sources, which give both this and the Commission's conclusions great validity. Amongst the sources from which evidence was garnered were secretaries of local labour leagues, land agents, independent witnesses, Poor Law Union Guardians, parish priests as well as personal interviews by the Commissioner and his agents. These interviews included visiting labourers' cottages in each of the subdistricts of the unions surveyed and much of the firsthand evidence gathered revealed the depressing conditions experienced by the rural and urban labourer alike.
The scope of the Commission's inquiry was as far-reaching as were its final conclusions. The specific areas of inquiry for volume IV part III were as follows: Railway communications; difference in attitude of English and Irish employers; unions compared as to supply of and demand for labour; everywhere a considerable amount of labour done by farmers and families; probable influence of cottage gardens on future; supply of labour.; hours of labour; difficulty of estimating total earnings; comparison between pay of ordinary labourers and farm servants in Bailieborough and Belper; construction of cottages; exercise of sanitary powers in England and Ireland; attitude of some guardians to 'Labourers' Acts'; labourers' opinions as to administration; ownership various; some freeholders. Mostly sub-let by farmers; rates paid by landowners and farmers jointly; influence of wretched houses on condition; uncertainty of employment. These differed only slightly from area or inquiry conducted into the conditions of agricultural labourer in other parts of the country and a total of 51 areas of agrarian society were examined by the Commission. The Commission for part III concluded that their 'Inquiry well received, especially by labourers'.
This publication reproduces just the Province of Munster & cities of Cork and Limerick sections of Slater's 1894 Royal National Directory of Ireland. This directory is one of only nine national directories for Ireland published prior to 1900. Apart from the fulsome coverage given-over to Ireland's major cities, Slater's also provides information on the principal private and commercial residents (including farmers) of the larger towns and villages. As a fully searchable CD-Rom, the publication of Slater's Royal National Directory of Ireland is an essential research aid that must grace the shelves of anybody interested in the people and institutions of Ireland.
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